M60 Main Battle Tank
Gary's Combat Vehicle Reference Guide

  M60 M60A1 M60A2 M60A3
Country of OriginUSA
RoleMain battle tank
Date Of Introduction 1960 1962 1974 1979
Crew4 (commander, driver, gunner, loader)
Combat Weight 50.5 tons (45.8 mt) 57.6 tons (52.2 mt) 57 tons (51.7 mt) 57 tons (51.7 mt)
Ground Pressure 10.8 psi (0.76 kg/cm²) 11.4 psi (0.80 kg/cm²) 13.2 psi (0.93 kg/cm²) 11.4 psi (0.80 kg/cm²)
Length, Overall 30.5 ft (9.3 m) 31 ft (9.4 m) 24.1 ft (7.3 m) 31 ft (9.4 m)
Width, Overall 11.9 ft (3.6 m) 11.9 ft (3.6 m) 11.9 ft (3.6 m) 11.9 ft (3.6 m)
Height, Overall 10.5 ft (3.2 m) 10.5 ft (3.2 m) 10.9 ft (3.3 m) 10.5 ft (3.2 m)
Ground Clearance16 in (406 mm)
 M60, M60A1, M60A2, M60A3
EngineContinental AVDS-1790 series turbosupercharged, fuel injection, 90° "V" type, aircooled, 12-cylinder 750 hp (559 kw) diesel
TransmissionDetroit Diesel Allison CD850 series. 2 speed forward, 1 speed reverse
Range310 miles (500 km)
Fuel Capacity375 gal (1,419 l)
Road Speed30 mph (48 km/h)
Reverse Speed5 mph (8 kph)
Cross Country Speed?
Swim SpeedN/A
Fording Depth4 ft (1.2 m)
Side Slope30%
  M60 M60A1 M60A2 M60A3
Armor Cast homogeneous armor steel hull and turret. Cast homogeneous armor steel hull and turret. Turret has Kevlar spall lining.
Applique ArmorN/A
Explosive Reactive ArmorN/A
Active Protective SystemN/A
NBC Protection SystemGas particulate filtration
Smoke Equipment N/A Engine smoke generator Four smoke grenade launchers (M226 smoke grenades) on each side of turret bustle Engine smoke generator.  Six smoke grenade launchers (66mm L8A1 smoke grenades) on each side of turret
M60, M60A1
Type Mount Typical Ammo Load
105mm M68 rifled gun Turret - M87 mount; manual loading
M60: M116 mount. M60A1: M140 mount
7.62mm M73 machine gun Coaxial to main gun 6,000
.50 Cal M85 machine gun Turret cupola 900
Type Mount Typical Ammo Load
152mm M162 gun-launcher Turret; manual loading 13 Shillelagh guided missiles.
33 conventional rounds. HEAT-MP, HE
7.62mm M219 machine gun Coaxial to main gun 6,000
.50 Cal M85 machine gun Turret cupola 900
Type Mount Typical Ammo Load
105mm M68 rifled gun Turret; manual loading 63.
7.62mm M240 machine gun Coaxial to main gun 6,000
.50 caliber M85 machine gun Turret cupola 900
  M60 M60A1 M60A2 M60A3
Fire Control System?
Main Gun Stabilization N/A Yes, with RISE N/A Yes
Rangefinder Stereoscopic Coincidence ? Laser
Infrared SearchlightYes


The M60-series tanks are full-track-laying, heavily armored combat vehicles operated by a four-man crew: driver, gunner, loader, and tank commander. The vehicles are powered by air-cooled compression ignition engines. Power is transmitted to the final drive through a cross drive transmission differential, steering, and braking unit. The vehicles are supported by a torsion-bar suspension system.

The M9 bulldozer installed on the M60-series tank will increase the vehicle weight by 4.45 tons (4.04 mt).

Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke System (VEESS)
M60A1, M60A1 (RISE), and M60A3 tanks were modified during the 1980's to provide vehicles with smoke screen capabilities for tactical purpose, and to improve combat survivability.

The VEESS operates by tapping fuel from the outlet of the engine driven fuel pump on the front of the engine downstream from the fuel/water separator. The fuel is then routed through a manual shut-off valve and through two solenoid valves at the rear of the engine. Fuel is then injected into the left and right exhaust pipes upstream of the turbochargers at a rate of approximately 1 gal/rein. Raw fuel injected into each hot turbo is instantly vaporized and a dense white cloud of smoke is emitted from the exhaust stacks.


M60 (NSN 2350-00-678-5773)
1960. "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-MM Gun, M60". See data above. Original production model. A total of 2,205 M60s were built.
  • Stereoscopic rangefinder.
  • Mechanical brake system.
  • Steering wheel.
GTA 17-2-8: M60 TM 9-2350-260-20-1-2: M60
M60A1 (NSN 2350-00-756-8497)
1962. "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-MM Gun, M60A1". See data above. A total of 7,948 M60A1s were built. Changes include:
  • Redesigned turret and commander's cupola.
  • Additional armor protection.
  • Electrical computer.
  • Coincidence rangefinder.
  • Hydraulic brake system.
  • T-bar steering device.
GTA 17-2-8: M60A1
M60A1 (RISE) (NSN 2350-00-116-9765)
1971-1977. "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-MM Gun, M60A1 (RISE)". Reliability Improved Selected Equipment (RISE) engine, gun stabilization system.
TB 9-2350-257-20-1: M60A1 RISE
M60A1 (RISE Passive) (NSN 2350-01-059-1503)
"Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-MM Gun, M60A1 (RISE Passive)".
M60A1E1, M60A1E2
1965. Used to conduct engineering development tests of the M60/Shillelagh missile system with a new compact turret. The M60A1E2 was redesignated as the M60A2 in 1971.
M60A2 (NSN 2350-00-930-3590)
1974. "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 152-MM Gun-Launcher, M60A2". See data above. Only 540 M60A2s were built. There were significant problems with the missile and launcher. By 1982, the turrets of all M60A2 tanks had been replaced by M48A5 turrets with conventional 105mm guns.
  • Compact turret which reduced exposed frontal area by 40%.
  • 152mm gun/missile launcher firing a conventional shell or a Shillelagh missile.
GTA 17-2-8: M60A2
M60A3 (NSN 2350-00-148-6548)
1979. "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-MM Gun, M60A3". See data above. Changes include:
  • Stabilized turret.
  • Analog ballistic computer.
  • Laser range finder (LRF).
  • Gun tube thermal sleeve.
  • Halon fire extinguisher system.
M60A3 TTS (NSN 2350-01-061-2306)
"Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-MM Gun, M60A3 TTS". Added a tank thermal sight (TTS).
M60A1 AVLB (NSN 5420-00-889-2020)
"Armored Vehicle, Bridge Launcher M60A1 AVLB". Armored Vehicle-Launched Bridge. An M60A1 chassis modified to transport, launch, and retrieve a 60-foot bridge.
M60 Panther
FM 20-32: M60 Panther
One of several developmental countermine systems used by US forces during operations Joint Endeavor and Joint Task Force Eagle. The Panther is a remotely controlled vehicle with mine rollers, and it is used to proof lanes and assembly areas. The system consists of a turretless M60 tank, Israeli mine rollers, an antimagnetic actuating device, and an remote-control unit that is mounted in a separate vehicle. Additionally, a remote video camera allows the operator to see the road ahead.
M728 CEV (NSN 2350-00-795-1797)
FM 5-103: M728 CEV
"Vehicle, Combat Engineering, Full Tracked, M728". Combat Engineer Vehicle. The CEV is a full-tracked armored vehicle which consists of a basic M60A1 tank with a front-mounted, hydraulically-operated dozer blade, surmounted by a turret bearing a 165mm demolition gun, a retractable boom of welded tubular construction, and a winch. The demolition gun is operated from within the vehicle. The winch is housed on the rear of the turret and is used in conjunction with the boom to lift, or without the boom to provide direct pull. The vehicle and dozer blade are operated from the driver's compartment, The demolition gun may be elevated or depressed for use at various ranges of up to 950 meters. A .50-caliber machine gun is cupola-mounted, and a 7.62mm machine gun is coaxially-mounted with the demolition gun.

More M60 Art - Click on image sample to see full size image.

TM 9-2350-260-20-1-2
500x365, 22K, GIF
TM 9-2350-260-20-1-2
M60 AVDS-1790-2A Engine
700x815, 76K, GIF
600x285, 30K, GIF
TM 9-2300-378-14
600x345, 17K, GIF

M60 Photos - Click on image sample to see full size image.

TM 55-2350-215-10-15
U.S. Army Photo
600x300, 80K, B/W, JPEG
Redstone Arsenal
U.S. Army Photo
720x576, 39K, B/W, JPEG
Defenselink website: Panther
23rd Engineer Battalion, 1st Brigade, 1st Armored Division
A remotely controlled Panther
Operation Joint Endeavor
near McGovern Base, in Bosnia and Herzegovina
U.S. DoD photo by Staff Sgt. Jon Long
1024x768, 291K, JPEG
Marine Corps website: AVLB
D Company, 2nd Tank Battalion, assigned to Regimental Combat Team 5
Marine AVLB
Operation Iraqi Freedom
near Gharmah, Iraq
Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Ryan C. Opick
1024x768, 236K, JPEG